As part of a broader pictorial turn in the Humanities since the 1990s, there has been an unprecedented scholarly interest in photography. Numerous recent studies in a variety of fields have considered photographs and albums—in more or less methodical ways—as exceptional types of documents, which simultaneously display reality and comment on it. Moreover, they have subjected photographs to a “postlinguisitc, postsemiotic rediscovery” (W.J.T. Mitchell) and expanded the focus to a wider visual culture and spectatorship, ranging from the gaze to practices of seeing. These studies have introduced new perceptions of photographic narratives as the foundation of shared memory (or “postmemory”) and, indeed, new histories. Scholars of Jewish studies and Jewish history have offered some of the most systematic and inventive demonstrations of photo-analysis that enriches and complicates our understanding of historical experiences and mnemonic practices. This book brings together some of the most intriguing endeavors in this field and highlights current developments, from new approaches to private narratives in family albums and the transnational circulation of photographic imagery to novel emphases in the study of Jewish migration and the use of digital collections of photographs. We seek not only to showcase and reflect on these recent achievements, but also to underscore the interrelations between works in different fields of Jewish studies and history and between different theoretical approaches to the use of photography in historical research.
The book has therefore a twofold objective. First, it seeks to provide a state of the art account of the field: What are the most significant approaches to photography in Jewish studies and history to date? How have these approaches been implemented in recent scholarship? And how can they be integrated in other, new inquiries, which will underscore a diversity of aspects related to modern Jewish experiences -- often gender- based -- that include acculturation, the Shoah and anti-Jewish mass violence, and migration. Second, it introduces new studies by both established and up and coming scholars that utilize photography in novel manners to redefine the contours of Jewish history and memory in the near future. To achieve this ambitious goal, the volume would comprise a wide variety of relevant topics and categories from professional to “vernacular” photography, produced and consumed within institutional, commercial or private contexts. Likewise, the studies in our volume would consider single photographs, alongside albums and serialized collections, and would examine challenges of interpretation and narration. The variety of styles and aesthetics would be complemented by a variety of places that sheds light on the diversity of Jewish experience from across Europe to North and South America, Asia and the Middle-East since the nineteenth century. Without being fully exhaustive, the volume will cover fundamental meeting
points between photography and Jewish experiences as well as major trends and potentials of this crucial field of inquiry.
In light of these dual objectives, we welcome contributions by scholars from a variety of disciplines who work on the intersections of Jewish photography, memory and history. We invite submissions that ponder our stated objectives and questions with a more empirical or a more theoretical emphasis. Finally, we will only accept work that has not already been published elsewhere.
The essays should engage one or more of the following research areas without being fully limited by them:
Please submit an abstract of 300 words (including title) and a short, 100-word bio to both Ofer Ashkenazi (firstname.lastname@example.org) and Thomas Pegelow Kaplan (email@example.com) by August 31, 2020.
Survivors and their testimonies have been central to Holocaust research and memorial culture. Even before the end of the Shoah, survivor historians in parts of Eastern Europe liberated from Nazi occupation collected testimonies and conducted interviews with fellow survivors. These practices constituted an integral part in rebuilding lives, coping with trauma, and shaping collective memories (Laura Jockusch). The 1960s trials of Nazi perpetrators, which were increasingly driven by Holocaust survivor-witnesses, laid the groundwork for the transformation of survivors into “survivors” in courtrooms from Jerusalem to Frankfurt/Main (Carolyn J. Dean). By the late 1970s and early 1980s, the beginning “era of the witness” (Annette Wieviorka), survivors and their testimonies were subject to further changes in increasingly transnational Holocaust memory cultures. Accompanying the rise of Holocaust Studies in North America and parts of Europe, survivors assumed often prominent positions in public discourse, frequently spoke in communities, schools, and universities, and—imbued with moral authority—conveyed a range of lessons about past and future genocides. During the 1990s, audio-visual projects, most noteworthy by the Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation (now USC Shoah Foundation), recorded Holocaust survivor voices around the globe in unprecedented numbers, further elevating their standing and significance. At the same time, international Holocaust scholarship shifted from a preoccupation with perpetrator records to the voices and agency of persecuted Jewish populations that had already been at the center of the work of many Israeli scholars for decades.
At the end of the twenty-first century’s second decade, most adult survivors of the Holocaust are no longer with us and more and more child survivors – brought into sharp focus by the recent death of prominent survivor-activists like Eva Kor – are passing away. In the U.S. today, the number of survivors has shrunk by about half to under 70,000 in the span of the last decade. In Israel, the survivor population had fallen to less than 150,000 by 2015. Estimates for 2025 put this figure closer to 45,000. In response, various organizations have stepped up their efforts to record accounts from remaining survivors. The USC Shoah Foundation has introduced its “New Dimensions in Testimony” project that records three-dimensional, interactive testimonies of Holocaust survivors, which it is making available at museums throughout the United States.
With fewer and fewer survivors remaining among us, educators and researchers need to reconsider how and in what forms Holocaust scholarship and the memory of the Holocaust will continue. The main focus will certainly be the legacy that survivors leave behind in the forms of written, audio, and video testimonies. Holocaust testimonies have been studied in a myriad of ways. Many scholars have analyzed the devastating impact of the genocide on the survivors. They have focused on a range of factors from trauma to identity formation. Others have examined the transmission of survivor testimony to their children and grandchildren, who have their own stories to tell and are profoundly shaped by what some have conceptualized as “postmemory” (Marianne Hirsch). A different body of scholarship has shed light on survivors and their testimony in the broader societal contexts of Holocaust consciousness and memory. Still others, especially some cohorts of historians, have shifted the focus back to what these testimonies reveal about the actual events of the Shoah. A number of historians have proposed to take these sources at face value and dismissed approaching them with “cautious skepticism” (Jan Gross). Still others have compared larger bodies of testimonies, constructed “collected” and “core” memories (Christopher R. Browning), and used them as the main sources for monograph-length studies of the Shoah.
This edited volume sets out to reevaluate the study and role of Holocaust testimonies in the twenty-first century. The prospect of a world without Holocaust survivors poses profound challenges, precisely because their testimony has become so central to Holocaust memory, education, and research since the 1980s. Scholarly work on survivor testimony is done today in many academic disciplines. The rich and varied corpus of testimonies requires the collaborative efforts of researchers across disciplines to enable us to hear the voices of survivors articulated through their testimonies. This volume takes stock of the extensive work that has been accomplished, discusses the challenges, and explores new ways of preserving, analyzing, and re-presenting Holocaust survivor testimonies at this critical time.
In light of these objectives, we are welcoming contributions by scholars from a wide variety of disciplines, ranging from history and literary analysis to linguistics and genocide studies as well as from psychology and neuroscience to anthropology and memory studies. The editors encourage a broad variety of approaches from empirically oriented case studies to theoretical and methodological reflections. We also invite comparative work, contrasting testimony by Holocaust survivors with survivors of other genocides, and cross- and transnational studies. Lastly, we only accept work that has not already been published elsewhere.
The essays should address some of the following questions without being limited by them:
Please submit an abstract of up to 400 words (including title) and a 100-word bio to Boaz Cohen (BoazC@wgalil.ac.il), Wolf Gruner (firstname.lastname@example.org), Miriam Offer (email@example.com), and Thomas Pegelow Kaplan (firstname.lastname@example.org) by Jan. 1, 2020.